Project Description

Tests on clay tiles

TESTS ON CLAY TILES



Technological tests

Contact person: Pietro Bruzzibruzzi@centroceramico.it – Direct phone number: >Bologna +39 051 0250144 – Sassuolo +39 0536 1700880
Clay pavers

  • Acid resistance UNI EN 1344 – app. G
  • Slip/skid resistance UNI EN 1344 – app. F
  • Dimensional characteristics UNI EN 1344 – app. B
  • Abrasion resistance UNI EN 1344 – app. E
  • Transverse breaking load UNI EN 1344 – app. D
  • Freeze/thaw resistance UNI EN 1344 – app. C

Masonry units – UNI 771-1

  • Compressive strength UNI EN 772-1
  • Water absorption UNI EN 771-1 Annex C
  • Water absorption UNI EN 772-7
  • Dimensions UNI EN 772-16
  • Flatness of faces UNI EN 772-20
  • Percentage of voids UNI EN 772-3
  • Percentage of voids UNI EN 772-9
  • Thickness measurement UNI EN 772-16
  • Moisture expansion UNI EN 772-19
  • Initial rate of water absorption UNI EN 772-11
  • Frost resistance R.D. 2233 16/11/39
  • Compressive strength before frost resistance R.D. 2233 16/11/39
  • Compressive strength after frost resistance R.D. 2233 16/11/39
  • Frost resistance UNI CEN TS 772-22

Elements for discontinuous laying – UNI 8635

  • Clay roofing tiles
  • Flexural strength UNI EN 538
  • Quality control EN 1304
  • Dimensional measurements EN 1024
  • Determination of the uniformity of the diagonal outline EN 1024
  • Flatness EN 1024
  • Straigthness of sides EN 1024



Chemical analysis and mixing behaviour

Contact person: Adelia Albertazzi – albertazzi@centroceramico.it – Direct phone number: +39 051 0250160

Chemical analysis by ICP-OES UNI EN ISO 21587-1 and UNI EN ISO 21587-3

  • Clays and equivalent (9 determinations) P.F., SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, K2O, Na2O
  • F melting and distillation
  • Sulphates – Determination by ICP-OES spectrometry – EN ISO 10304-1, EN ISO 10304-2
  • Sulphates – gravimetric determination
  • Total sulphur (MD 13/09/1999 “Official Methods of chemical analysis of the soil”)
  • Total organic substances (MD 13/09/1999 “Official Methods of chemical analysis of the soil”)
  • Total CaCO3 (MD 13/09/1999 “Official Methods of chemical analysis of the soil”)

Total soluble salts

  • Total soluble salts (RD 16/11/1939, no. 2233)
  • RD – quali-quantitative determination of solubile extract
  • Active soluble salts content EN 772-5

Mixing behaviour

  • Atterberg plasticity
  • Pfefferkorn plasticity
  • Plasticity – Methylene blue method
  • Drying behaviour



Surface texture characterisation; colour, reflectance measurements

Contact person: Barbara Mazzanti – mazzanti@centroceramico.it – Direct phone number: +39 051 0250195

Colour and reflectance measurements

  • Determination of the average solar reflectivity and measurement of solar reflectance index (SRI) ASTM E 903-12 and ASTM E 1980-11
  • Determination of Light Reflectance Value (LRV) ASTM C 609-07
  • Determination of Light Reflectance Value (LRV) AS 1428.1:2009, App. B
  • Determination of Light Reflectance Value (LRV) BS 8493:2008 + A1:2010
  • Determination of thermal emittance ASTM C 1371-04a
  • Transmittance, reflectance or absorbance spectra
  • Determination of solar absorptance ASTM E903-12 and EN 410-11:2011 (E)
  • Colour coordinates

Surface roughness and texture

  • Surface roughness measurement; determination of the parameters EN ISO 4287
  • 3D surface profile and/or imaging
  • Surface mapping
  • Data processing and 3D images of the surface



Mineralogical and microstructural characterisation, functional performance (thermal conductivity, photocatalysis, antibacterial, …)

Contact person: Elisa Rambaldi – rambaldi@centroceramico.it – Direct phone number: +39 051 0250119

XRD analysis

  • XRD analysis (with or without interpretation)
  • Quantitative XRD

Microscopic analysis

  • SEM observation
  • EDS Microanalysis
  • Stereomicroscope observation
  • Optical microscope observation
  • Images
  • Quantitative microscopic analysis (porosity and pore/grain size distribution, etc.

Thermal conductivity and firing behaviour

  • Thermal conductivity (direct or indirect measurement from thermal diffusivity and specific heat)
  • Pyroplastic deformation

Photocatalysis and resistance to mould, bacteria; cleanability and durability

  • Photocatalysis tests (internal protocol, ISO 10678, ISO 22197, …)
  • Antibacterial tests for photocatalytic surfaces (internal protocol, ISO 27447, …) and non-photocatalytic surfaces (internal protocol, ISO 22196, …)
  • Determination of the resistance to mould colonisation for photocatalytic and non-catalytic surfaces (internal protocol, BS 5980)
  • Durability tests for surface treatments/finishes/functionalisation
  • Cleanability tests for photocatalitic or non-photocatalytic surfaces (internal protocol, ISO 27448)



Thermal analysis, wettability, density

Contact person: Giovanni Ridolfi – ridolfi@centroceramico.it – Direct phone number: +39 051 0250192

Thermal analysis

  • Heating microscope

Determination of contact angle

Density

  • Determination of the density by helium pycnometer

Dilatometry

  • Thermo dilatometric analysis (green), heating up to 1000 °C and cooling
  • Coefficient of thermal expansion M.D. 09/01/96 Annex 7
  • Coefficient of linear thermal expansion ASTM E 831

Mercury porosimetry




Mechanical characterisation

Contact person: Elisa Rambaldi – rambaldi@centroceramico.it – Direct phone number: +39 051 0250119

Bending strength

  • Bending strength and elastic modulus (fired specimens)
  • Bending strength and elastic modulus (green specimens)
  • Bending strength of 30 specimens with Weibull statistics